The land of three hearts

History

The exact date of the founding of Paseka is not known, though the year 1326 is often mentioned; at this time Paseka was known under the name of Thechanow. The first document eduse of the Latinized form of the town, Passeca, dates to 1368, and after 1413 the town is referred to under its Czech name of Paseka.

Due to the fact that the parish Church of St. Kunhuta has Romanesque structural elements in its walls the founding of the town can date back even further than heretofore researched written sources indicate. The most likely founder of the town is an individual closely related to the Olomouc Diocese: the bishop’s feudal tenant, member of the Olomouc Chapter, or an as yet unknown locator invited by one of a number of Olomouc bishops.

In the 14th century Paseka belonged to the Olomouc Chapter, from which Dětoch of Šumvald acquired it in 1370 with his son called Dětošek (Little Dětoch). After less than a year the Lords of Šumvald sold Paseka to the Pavlík of Sovinec and Paseka became part of the Sovinec domain until the cancellation of patrimonial rule in 1848.

The Lords of Sovinec acquired their signifi cant standingin the service of the Olomouc bishops. They originally resided in their own castle, the ruins of which are preserved above Sitka Stream to the left of the road leading from Huzová to Mutkov. Huzov Castle, earlier known as Mutkov Castle or Waldhausen, was the predecessor to Sovinec Castle. The Lords of Sovinec held the Sovinec domain from the firsthalfofthe14th century, with the exception of several decades when the Sovinec domain was owned at the end of the 15th century by Jan Heralt of Kunštat up until just before 1545 when it was purchased from Ješek Pňovský of Sovinec by Kryštof of Boskovice. Kryštof of Boskovice owned the Sovinec domain, including Paseka, until 1576 when he sold everything to the wealthy aristocrat and mining entrepreneur Vavřinec Eder. The new owner of the domain had a single daughter, Anna, who, when Eder died in 1590, inherited all of his property, becoming the richest bride in all of Moravia.

Knight Jan Kobylka the Elder of Kobylí, a widower, won her hand, and the wedding was held in 1592. Although only a knight, Jan Kobylka of Kobylí, thanks to this favourable marriage and his skills moved up the ladder to join the elite of the country; he occupied an important position and was even on personal terms with the emperor. But his career was ill-fated. In 1618 he was a member of the Moravian Regional Government that led the Rebellion of the Estates against the emperor. He was punished by having his property confiscated, but used his good relationship with the emperor and his aristocratic stature to gain a pardon and his domain was returned. But he didn’t escape entirely without penalty, and in 1623 was forced to sell his domain to the Teutonic Knights. He received 200,000 florins for the domain and was permitted to take his servants and everything that was not firmly nailed down. These were exceptionally advantageous conditions for the “rebel”. Despite this, following Kobylka’s death his relatives challenged the sale of the domain a number of times and demanded its return. Kobylka was a tragic figure. He experienced spectacular risesand steep falls. In romanticli terature he was of ten portrayed as a benevolent father to his subjects, but in reality he ruled with a much harder hand than his predecessors. Under him the Germanization of the Sovinec domain and Paseka itself began. He most likely died in 1632. From 1623 to 1848 the Sovinec domain belonged to the Teutonic Knights, who were therefore the highest judicial and administrative authority for the residents of Paseka. Their rule was interrupted in 1626-1627 by the Danish invasion, and in 1643-1648 the Sovinec domain was occupied by the Swedish army. The Swedish army didn’t return Sovinec Castle until 1650. In 1650 control of the Paseka domain was resumed by the Teutonic Knights, the grandm?cancelled. In practice this meant that the office of hetmanand judicial district swerees tablished. Paseka be longe dunder the Uničov judicial district, which was part of the Litovel hetman office. Starting in 1909 Paseka belonged under the Šternberk district hetman office. Following the occupation of Czechoslovakiain 1938 Paseka be came part of the German. The placed in the newly established Olomouc District and Northern Moravian Region. In 1959 Pasecký Žleb was incorporated into the town of Paseka, followed by Karlov, today’s well-known recreational centre in the Nízký Jeseník Mountains, in 1964.

The town of Mutkov was part of Paseka (as a local section) in the years 1960-1993. In 1997 the existing system of districts and regions was cancelled and Paseka became part of the newly established Olomouc Region. According to historical sources Paseka was originally a Czech town. Czech officialslivedinSovinecandofficialbooks – land and duties registers – were written in Czech. The names of Paseka peasants listed in the older land and duties registers were purely Czech. The gradual Germanization of the domain’s administration didn’t begin until the beginning of the 17th century when the knight Kobylka replaced the Czech official swith Germans. Beginningin 1609 the Sovinec landandduties records were written in German. As the result of hardships suffered during the Thirty Years War there was a significant decline in the original Czech population, and these residents were gradually replaced by German settlers, mostly from the Silesian mountain regions. Despite this, many Czech residents still lived in Paseka at the end of the 17th century; however, the majority of these were Germanized during the course of the 18th century and by the 19th century their descendants felt themselves to be German and had no idea of their Czech origins. But nonetheless, Paseka was never completely German and in the first half of the 20th century a Czech minority school was in operation. Following the end of the Second World War and already in the second half of 1945 residents from the interior parts of the country began to move to Paseka. These were mostly people from the Walachia and Haná regions, Croatians, and Volyn Czechs, who gradually took over the homesteads of the original German nationals who were moved from Paseka to Germany in 1946-1947. The new residents soon settled into their new beautiful home and today they and their descendants are proud citizens of the town of Paseka.

This project was co-financed from Regional resources and from contributions from the Structural Funds
of the European Union by means of the Common Regional Operational Programme.

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